Cardiff is the largest city in
Wales, home to the Welsh Government and
the Principality Stadium for major
sporting and entertainment events,
formerly the Millennium Stadium.
William the Conqueror began the
building of Cardiff Castle in 1081, on
the site of an old Roman Fort. The town
grew up around the castle and port.
Cardiff was caught up in many
battles between 1081 and the early
1400s. These battles were an attempt to
keep English kings from ruling Wales,
known as the Anglo Welsh
The Act of Union between England and
Wales in 1536 led the two countries
merging. Scotland merged with England
and Wales in 1707, and Ireland merged
in 1800, leading to the Kingdom of
1648, during the Second English
Civil War, the Battle of
St Fagans, 5 miles west of Cardiff,
saw the Parliamentarian forces of
Oliver Cromwell defeat the Royalists
and and take control of Wales. This was
the last major battle in Wales.
1820s, Cardiff docks were built up
by the wealthy Scots landowner John
Marquess of Bute, descendant of
King Robert the Bruce. Bute increased
his wealth through exporting coal and
iron from Cardiff. Bute also took
control of Cardiff
Castle at that time, transforming
it into a stately home.
1880s, Cardiff had become the
largest town in Wales, shipping more
coal than any other port in the
1905, Cardiff was made a city.
1955, Cardiff became the capital of
Wales. There had been no capital city
in Wales until this time.
1960s, coal exports had virtually
ceased, and the Moors Steelworks closed
in 1978, leading to the docks being run
1990s, the docks at Cardiff undergoe
transformation into an area for
recreation, museums, shopping, and sea
view apartments. The area is now known
as Cardiff Bay.
1998, the National Assembly for
Wales is introduced to give the Welsh
power to make legislation in Wales.
Senedd (National Assembly Building)
is built at Cardiff Bay in an award
winning architectural design.
wiki/Cardiff for more History